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Added: Britt Hodges - Date: 22.02.2022 10:16 - Views: 17327 - Clicks: 4410

Organizations invest in IT systems with the hope of cutting costs, increasing the quality of products or services [ 1 ]. But if users do not accept the systems, the organizations can not benefit ificantly from the new systems. On the other hand, if users accept new IT systems they become more willing to make use of the new systems [ 2 ].

The usage of a newly introduced system can be a of the IT system success [ 3 ]. Therefore, finding the reasons that motivate people to use or understand the source of resistance to use new IT systems, is important to both system deers and developers [ 4 ]. The use of IT in health care practices has increased recently [ 5 ]. A variety of IT systems such as clinical information systems, personal digital assistants, electronic patient records and other applications have gradually become established in the healthcare industry. Clinical IT applications in healthcare are regarded as a key element in raising the quality of medical care.

The concern of having new clinical IT systems unused is still one of the biggest issues for the clinical IT developers [ 38843 chat line10 ].

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With reference to a study done by Walter and Lopez [ 8 ] two types of IT are available in medical care environment. The first one is Electronic Medical Records EMR systems which are computer systems that allow users to create, store, and retrieve patient charts on a computer.

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These systems are referred to as knowledge-based systems that use patient data and series of reasoning techniques to generate diagnostic and treatment options and care planning. Typically, clinical IT is deed to enhance decision-making in health care environment and in this study the emphasis is on CDS systems. There is enough evidence to state that healthcare professionals are different from other IT users in terms of accepting technology and may respond differently to clinical IT [ 1314 ]. Their different IT adoption behavior is attributed to their professional characteristics such as specialized training, professional autonomy and professional work context.

Healthcare professionals are highly sensitive to changes in their work setting especially they are more concerned about the kind of changes that are perceived as a threat to their professional autonomy [ 15161718 ]. Therefore, the feature and nature of instructions and guidelines given by IT to healthcare professionals in terms of problem-solving process may be considered as an element that invalidate their professional autonomy [ 19 ]. While a variety of definitions for the term professional have been suggested, this study uses the definition from sociology.

With attention to the study conducted by Sharma [ 20 ], members of some professions have been called professionals, in light of their command of focal as well as demanding knowledge that they possess. This list includes the holders of five professions namely financial analysts, lawyers, university professors, ants and finally physicians. It should be mentioned that generally, the medical profession has been thought of as the model or symbol of professionals based on the nature of the knowledge owned 38843 chat line physicians compared to the others.

According to Watts [ 21 ] in all public polls which were taken in the USA in the second half of 20th century, the public selected physicians as the most honored professionals. In this study, the focus is on IT adoption behavior of healthcare professionals. Based on a review a literature, different types of medical workers are considered as healthcare professionals. This group encompasses all physicians such as general practitioners, internists, pediatrics, radiologists, geriatrics, gynecologists, pathologists, surgeons, and other specialty doctors.

For the entire mentioned group, the possibility of working with clinical information systems to deliver proper treatment and health care 38843 chat line patients is reasonable. Professionals have some distinct and professional characteristics whereby they are viewed different from other non-professionals.

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Due to the scope of this study, the special characteristics of healthcare professionals are put at the center of attention. The most important feature is healthcare professional autonomy and the other features are patient sovereignty, physician confidentiality, and habits of learning.

According to Raelin [ 22 ], professional autonomy is defined as the control that professionals have over the processes and content of their work. Patient sovereignty is defined as paternalism or the traditional model of doctor-patient relationship that includes official instruction and the patient's values in shared decision-making is not really emphasized in this type of communication [ 23 ]. The increasing body of medical knowledge is a main concern to all types of doctors.

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Their habits of learning are associated with their subjective ability to keep themselves professionally updated on new medical findings. With reference to the findings of an 38843 chat line study conducted by Chau and Hu [ 25 ], some unique characteristics are believed to be held by healthcare professionals. Three characteristics have been proposed as the main characteristics of this group.

The first one is specialized training that reveals their domination over knowledge which has been obtained during a lengthy period of education. As stated by Watts [ 21 ], they devote a considerable portion of their youth preparing for the profession. Their body of knowledge is directly associated with the lives of patients. In this profession even a slight mistake can be fatal. Therefore, the heightened emphasis has been placed on specialized training of healthcare professionals. The second characteristic is professional autonomy.

Based on this characteristic, healthcare professionals proclaim that they are in the best position to drive, organize, and regulate their own practice.

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They are judged mainly through a peer review process in which professionals evaluate each other. As mentioned by Zuger [ 26 ], professional autonomy has clearly 38843 chat line the most important value. This advantage provides healthcare professionals with a sense of pride, and accomplishment. In addition, they take special power, prestige, 38843 chat line authorities, as well as they are put at the top of the hierarchy in the health care profession.

As stated by Watts [ 21 ], and Montague et al. Also, in this setting, two other occupational groups para-professionals and non-professionals work with healthcare professionals. These two groups, the role they play in healthcare organizations and their relevance to this study is addressed in the following section. According to Starr [ 28 ] at the start of the second half of the 20th century, healthcare professionals are viewed as the holders of desirable autonomy and respect within the health care industry.

In accordance with Abbott [ 29 ], being members of a profession is certainly conducive to professional autonomy. Based on a study by Adams [ 30 ], professional autonomy is considered as a key factor of the medical profession. Drawing on a recent study by Walter and Lopez [ 8 ], professional autonomy is viewed as a precious privilege given to professionals and they do not like to lose it in their workplace. As pointed out by Freidson [ 32 ], based on professional autonomy which is granted to professionals, individuals outside the profession non-professionals do not know how to evaluate the practices of the professionals due to lack of required knowledge.

Relying on professional autonomy, physicians are provided with separate bylaws and arrangement within hospitals [ 28 ]. Professional autonomy generates two main expectations of professionals. On the one hand, they are required to practice with extreme conscientiousness and without any direct surveillance.

One the other hand, they are trusted to take on the necessary measures in carrying out their tasks [ 33 ]. This view is supported by Wilson et al. A peer review process is being utilized in professional settings in order to validate the evaluation of professionals based on subjective analysis of objective measures. According to Walter and Lopez [ 8 ], one of the most important characteristics of professional autonomy is being analyzed by peers instead of non-professionals who are outside the profession.

Therefore, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the importance of professional autonomy that indicates the possession of esoteric body of knowledge which the outsiders are not aware of.

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On the basis of having professional autonomy, professionals are given some special rights. First, professionals take advantage of having more access to critical resources than non-professionals. A survey conducted by Freidson [ 33 ] shows that as long as professionals are not provided with adequate resources such as equipment and staff, they can claim that their work cannot be accomplished in the best way.

Second, professionals have power over the tasks carried out by non-professionals ones who do not have professional qualification, skills as well as knowledge and are involved in administrative duties, clerical and office work and para-professionals ones who possesses only partial professional skills such as technicians that assist professionals in performing their work and can control the tasks carried out by them [ 36 ]. It should be added that the 38843 chat line of having control over subordinate groups is more considerable in those organizations with existing hierarchies among various working groups.

A hospital is regarded as an organization in which different work-related groups physician assistants, nurses, medical technicians, and administration possess different levels of medical knowledge and among all; physicians are placed at the top of the hierarchy. The following figure Figure-1 shows the hierarchy of different occupational work groups involved in a hospital, based on their level of medical knowledge.

38843 chat line

The hierarchy in healthcare organizations based on level of medical knowledge. One view toward any new computerized system is that IT can reduce dependence on specific personnel [ 37 ]. These rules, procedures, and recommendations deed and embedded in IT 38843 chat line weaken their claim on possession of special competence in problem solving.

Moreover, these instructions can invalidate their decision making skills in terms of deciding what to do for treatment of their patients. As stated by Harrison et al. This is because they believe that they can treat their patients based on their specialized knowledge, experience, skills and competence. Bucy [ 40 ] has mentioned that there is a slight difference between interactivity and social interaction in the form of person-to-person conversation or face-to-face communication.

On the one hand, interactivity can be viewed as a special sort of mediated social interaction, like online chat, discussion forums, or teleconferencing. On the other hand, it can appear as impersonal interactions with media content or nonhuman agents such as computer game playing, e-commerce transactions, and various other forms of content interactivity.

Perceived level of interactivity is largely based on the belief that the interactive nature of the clinical system can assist in creating cooperation between healthcare professionals and clinical IT systems. Perceived level of interactivity 38843 chat line CDS can be divided into three parts.

Interactive features of CDS itself. Interaction between healthcare professionals and CDS. A higher perceived level of interactivity with a system causes higher degree of control that healthcare professionals have during the interaction with an IT system. Higher level of control consequently may result in the less threat perceived from the system to their professional autonomy and in turn they become more prone to use the new IT. This issue indicates that when healthcare professionals perceive low level of control over the health care process due to the function and features of the new CDS, they become less likely to use the system.

In other words, if healthcare professionals perceive that the regulations given out by CDS may threaten their professional autonomy and CDS acts as their supervisor directing them what to do without their interference, they perceive this kind of IT with low level of interactivity as encroaching on their professional autonomy.

Thus, different level of interactivity with CDS system is conducive to different perception toward using that system. For instance, healthcare professionals may perceive a low level of interactivity with the CDS in comparison with the EMR. As a result, perceived level of interactivity is largely based on the belief that the interactive nature of the clinical system can assist in creating cooperation between the healthcare professionals and the IT system.

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