Girls with substance

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Disquieting rates of alcohol and drug use among adolescent girls call for original research on gender-specific risk and protective factors for substance use. Particularly salient are data on theory-driven factors that can inform prevention programming. Surveying adolescent girls and their mothers, we found relationships between girls' use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and inhalants and girls' after-school destinations, body images, depression, best friend's substance use, maternal drinking behavior, mother-daughter interactions, and family norms surrounding substance use.

Study findings have implications for the de of responsive gender-specific prevention programs.

Girls with substance

Adolescent girls are beginning to surpass adolescent boys in their substance use [ 12 ]. Among eighth- and tenth-graders, girls drink more than their male counterparts; girls are also more likely than boys to use inhalants and stimulants.

Girls with substance

Girls start smoking at younger ages, and they subsequently smoke more regularly than boys. Once girls use harmful substances, they are more apt than boys to become dependent. Family interaction theory offers a framework to understand the forces that may move girls toward and away from substance use [ 3 ].

According to this theory, girls' intrapersonal characteristics, social influences from their environments and peers, and emotional attachment to their parents combine to influence substance use. The theory focuses on parent-child attachment, especially that between mother and .

Girls with substance

If mothers have warm, nurturing relationships with their daughters, girls may be less likely to drink and take drugs. Conversely, if mothers fail to supervise and support their daughters, girls may attach to their peers, particularly deviant ones. Studies find that girls are more likely than boys to smoke, drink, and use drugs when they overly concerned with peer approval [ 4 ]. Around puberty, girls are vulnerable to depression, a risk factor for substance use and abuse [ 5 ]. Strong family bonds are associated with lower rates of substance use for all youths.

Yet low parental attachment correlates more highly with smoking, drinking, and drug use among girls than among boys [ 6 ]. Low parental monitoring and concern and an unstructured home environment are strongly correlated with substance use among girls; parents' failure to monitor their children's activities can put girls at risk [ 7 ]. To learn more about gender-specific risk and protective factors that might inform prevention programming, we surveyed a sample of early adolescent girls and mothers about relevant correlates of alcohol, prescription drug, and inhalant use.

Study participants were recruited through advertisements, buses, and a radio station serving greater New York City. The advertisements directed respondents to a website that gave details about the study, specified inclusion criteria, and asked for contact information so interested persons could receive informed consent forms. ed consent forms were returned by 1, respondents, representing mother-daughter pairs.

Consenting mothers and assenting girls who had parental consent received usernames and passwords to access online surveys. Survey items came from ly validated questionnaires on adolescent and adult substance use and related risk and protective factors [ 8 - 10 ]. Internal reliabilities for girls' and mothers' questionnaires were 0. To control for girls' ages, ethnic-racial backgrounds, and school grades, and for their mothers' places of birth, educations, and nature of employment, multivariate logistic regression was employed to analyze the relationship between each independent variable and girls' alcohol, Girls with substance drug, or inhalant use.

Over three-fourths of girls in the sample were African-American or Latina Table 1. Girls had an average age of Most girls reported that their school grades were mostly As or Bs. Across the sample, Roughly one-half of the mothers regularly attended church. Girls who reported a positive image of their bodies 4. Girls with higher levels of depression 4. Study findings suggest that where adolescent girls go after school, how they view and think about themselves, who their friends are, what their mothers know about their comings and goings, and whether their families articulate nonuse messages are associated with girls' use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and inhalants.

Whereas the roles of positive after-school activities, peer use, and certain psychosocial variables in explaining substance use risk among youth are well examined, little work has studied the contributions of parental behavior, monitoring, and norms. Clearly, if girls do not go home after school, they are not helped by simply hanging out and engaging in unstructured activities. That girls' body images and affective states of depression relate to substance use is evident in our data.

Whether girls use substances to change their bodies or numb perceptions of their bodies cannot be verified by our. Likewise, study data cannot address whether depressed girls use substances or whether substance use exacerbates depression. The well-known influence of best friends in determining adolescent substance use is underscored by large ORs in our findings. Maternal factors associated with adolescent girls' substance Girls with substance are complex, yet understandable. Mothers' single-parent status and tobacco habits appear to offer little explanation for their daughters' drinking and drug taking.

But mothers' alcohol use behavior and knowledge of their daughters' whereabouts, companions, and accessibility helped explain girls' substance use. Finally, our data point up the value of overt family expectations about their children's substance use.

Parents who set rules about drug nonuse and who articulate messages of abstinence from drugs may raise daughters who incorporate those rules and messages into their own reduced risk behavior. These conclusions fit well with family interaction theory. Our research is not without flaws. The self-selection of girls and mothers is a major limitation. Though participants' demographic profiles matched the population from which they came, girls and mothers responding to an invitation for an online survey are likely more motivated, computer-savvy, and on better terms with one another than those who chose not to be in our sample.

The cross-sectional de precludes causal inferences regarding our independent and dependent variables. Boys were not engaged in the study, thereby leaving unanswered questions about gender differences. Last, lifetime use reports of drinking and drug taking are not the most sensitive indicators. Subsequent research can address these weaknesses to further advance the scientific database of why girls are escalating their substance use behavior.

The loss of protective factors that heretofore may have ed for girls' lower risks is an appealing topic for further study. Still greater investment should be made in work that can directly inform prevention programming for girls. The potential for parent involvement, especially the participation of girls' mothers, is an especially profitable area for future research. Perhaps our findings will stimulate follow-on research to investigate and prevent substance abuse among adolescent girls.

Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable Girls with substance. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

National Center for Girls with substance InformationU. J Adolesc Health. Author manuscript; available in PMC Aug 1. Steven P. SchinkePh. ColeM. Kristin C. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Adolesc Health. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Disquieting rates of alcohol and drug use among adolescent girls call for original research on gender-specific risk and protective factors for substance use.

Keywords: Drug and alcohol use, female adolescents, risk and protective factors. Methods Study sample and Procedures Study participants were recruited through advertisements, buses, and a radio station serving greater New York City.

Data Analysis To control for girls' ages, ethnic-racial backgrounds, and school grades, and for their mothers' places of birth, educations, and nature of employment, multivariate logistic regression was employed to analyze the relationship between each independent variable and girls' alcohol, prescription drug, or inhalant use. Table 1 Daughter and Mother Sample Characteristics. Open in a separate window. Discussion Study findings suggest that where adolescent girls go after school, how they view and think about themselves, who their friends are, what their mothers know about their comings and goings, and whether their families articulate nonuse messages are associated with girls' use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and inhalants.

Footnotes Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. References 1. Monitoring the future national on adolescent drug use: overview of key findings, NIH Publication No.

Bethesda, MD: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. The formative years: pathways to substance abuse among girls and young women ages New York: Author; Rohrbach LA, Milam J. Gender issues in drug prevention. Handbook of drug use theory, science, and practice. New York: Plenum Press; Genetic and environmental risk factors in adolescent substance abuse. J Child Psychology Girls with substance Psychiatry. Correlates of adolescent drug use by gender and geographic location.

Am J Drug Alc Abuse. Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behaviors among urban low-income African-American children and adolescents.

Girls with substance

J Adol Health. Kovacs M. Rocky Mountain Behavioral Institute. American Drug and Alcohol Survey: reliability and validity. The Harter self-perception profile for adolescents: Psychometrics for an early adolescent, African-American sample. Inter J Testing. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

Girls with substance

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